London United Tramways

Owner London United Tramways Company Limited
Took over 20th August 1894 (West Metropolitan Tramways [horse]; from receivership)
Operator London United Tramways Company Limited
First electric route 4th April 1901
Owning company renamed 11th November 1901 ('London United Tramways [1901] Limited')
Owning company renamed 1907 ('London United Tramways Limited')
Ownership transferred 1st January 1913 (London and Suburban Traction Company Ltd - a holding company jointly owned by the Underground Electric Railways Company of London Limited and the British Electric Traction Company Limited)
Taken over 2nd May 1922 (London County Council Tramways) — Hammersmith and Shepherds Bush routes
Taken over 1st July 1933 (London Transport) - remaining routes
Closed 13th December 1936 (last ex-LUT tram route)
Length 53.75 miles
Gauge 4ft 8½ins

Button description (Pattern 1) Script initials (‘LUT’) within rim
Materials known Brass; black horn
Button Line reference [113/42]

Button description (Pattern 2)
Script initials (‘LUET’) within rim
Materials known Brass
Button Line reference [113/43]

Button description (Pattern 3) 'TRAMWAYS' roundel
Materials known Brass
Button Line reference [114/72]

Comment The 'LUET' initials (Pattern 2) stand for 'London United Electric Tramways'; although no company of that name ever existed, the LUT formally adopted this title in 1901 as a 'Fleet Name', employing it on tram cars, official paperwork (including tickets) and uniforms. The 'Fleet Name' was probably introduced to reflect the electrification of 1901, especially as it was London's first overhead electric tramway. In view of this, and the relative rarity of the Pattern 1 button, I strongly suspect that the Pattern 1 button was in use prior to 1901, thereafter gradually being replaced by the Pattern 2 button. Although the company once again altered the 'Fleet Name' in 1910 - to 'London United Tramways Limited' - this was not reflected in the tramway uniforms.

With respect to the Pattern 3 button, this would appear to have been issued to the 'London United Tramways' - along with 'Metropolitan Electric Tramways' (MET) and the 'South Metropolitan Electric Tramways' (SMET) - some time between 1915 and 1920 (a process which was prolonged by the intervention of the Great War). All three tramway companies had effectively been merged - under the umbrella of a holding company (the 'London & Suburban Traction Company Ltd') - over a six-month period from late 1912 (LUT and M.E.T) to May 1913 (SMET). Although they continued to maintain their individual identities, from 1915 onwards they were actively administered as a single entity, with some attempts at standardization (eg, uniforms) being undertaken.

The history of the LUT and particularly it's ownership is complex. The company was expressly formed to take over and rebuild the 'West Metropolitan Tramways', and was essentially a family-owned enterprise (the 'White' family - the controllers of the Imperial Tramway Company). However, on 19th March 1903, George White's majority interest was sold to Charles Tyson Yerkes, the leading light in the 'Underground Electric Railways Company of London Ltd'. Although no formal merger ever took place, this transaction effectively transferred control of the LUT to the UERL. Nine years later (on the 15th January 1912), the UERL itself merged with the 'London General Omnibus Company', going on to acquire full control of two further underground railways (The City and South London Railway and The Central London Railway). This 'combine' came to be known as the 'Underground Group'. On 1st January 1913, the LUT was formally transferred to the 'London & Suburban Traction Company Ltd', along with the MET and the Tramways (M.E.T) Omnibus Company Ltd, both of which were owned by British Electric Traction Co Ltd (BET); BET's remaining London tramway (the SMET) followed suit in May 1913. The L&STCo was a holding company jointly owned by the UERL and BET, but controlled initially by the latter; however on 1st May 1915, administrative control was passed to the former, so all three tramways effectively now came under the sway of the Underground Group. BET finally sold their remaining 5% share in the M.E.T to the UERL in November 1928.

The precise origins of the London Underground 'bullseye' logo used on the Pattern 3 button are still not entirely clear. The distinctive lettering (larger first and final letters) was a design promoted by the District Railway (a UERL company) in 1908 as a means of 'branding' London's underground railways (not just the District Railway). At the same time, the District Railway also began to introduce station signage which is clearly recognisable as the forerunner of the later 'bullseye' logo. This consisted of a blue horizontal bar with the station name in white lettering, overlain on a solid red circle - the design of which was said to have been greatly influenced by the London General Omnibus Company's emblem (a spoked wheel with the word 'GENERAL' displayed across it). Although the iconic 'UNDERGROUND' bar and circle roundel (with a ring as opposed to a solid circle) began to appear on publicity material from around 1912, it was not formally registered until 1917 and only after that did it start to appear on stations. It was subsequently used throughout the Underground Group's enterprises (railways, buses, tramways, electricity supply companies), and was subsequently adopted by London Transport following the take over in 1933.