Leeds City Tramways
Following the corporation take-over of the Leeds Tramways Company in 1894, staff were gradually issued with uniforms, excepting those working on the steam tram engines (drivers and firemen), who wore typical railway footplate attire. There is some evidence to suggest that the corporation initially continued the practice of the erstwhile tramway company in requiring conductors to where uniforms purchased at their own expense, though the policy did not apparently last long.
Conductors and drivers were issued with double-breasted jackets of blue serge with red piping, with two rows of five buttons (carrying the municipal device - see link) and high lapels; these were in fact were very similar in style, if not identical to, those worn by staff working the Roundhay Park electric concession (see link), and likewise, do not appear to have carried any insignia. Caps were in the kepi style with a glossy peak, but do not appear to have carried a cap badge. There is however some evidence to suggest that they may have borne a small badge issued by Leeds Hackney Carriages Committee, though this cannot be made out on surviving photographs.
Horse and steam services continued up until 13th October 1901, and the 1st April 1902 respectively, with corporation-operated electric services being introduced from 1897 onwards. Staff working the new electric services wore identical uniforms to those working the other services. Conductors on both the horse, steam and electric services wore large round licences during this early municipal era (see below); it is unclear whether drivers were required to wear licences, though photographs would suggest not.
From late 1902 onwards, large gilt cap badges were issued; although these appear at first glance to be round, they are in fact oval (see below), being slightly taller than broad. The badge comprised a chequered back plate within a wreath, with 'LEEDS' in fretwork at the top (beneath a rope), and 'TRAMWAYS' in relief at the bottom - a nickel employee number was attached in the middle of the badge. In 1907, the kepi-style caps were replaced by a more contemporary military design with a tensioned crown (top).
The style of the uniform jackets was changed significantly around the time of the Great War, and though still double-breasted, they had a more functional look to them with high fold-over collars rather than the lapels, and were buttoned up to the neck, very probably a concession to the Leeds climate! After the Great War, a return was made to jackets with lapels, still double-breasted, giving a much smarter appearance than their immediate predecessors. An employee number was now worn on both upper lapels (in individual metal numerals), prefixed with either an 'M' or a 'C' for Motorman or Conductor.
In 1927, a new cap badge was introduced that was quite unlike anything used by any other UK tramway concern, comprising a scallop-topped nickel shield with 'LEEDS' in a blue enamel inlay at the top, and a representation of Leeds prototype Tramcar No 400 in relief underneath. Similar badges were also issued to bus and trolleybus staff, but with those vehicles in relief rather than a tram, and enamel inlay of a different colour. After the Second World War, new convex caps were also introduced; these were very reminscent of those worn by US Air Force crews, which together with the unusual US Police Department like cap badge, made for a distinctly American appearance.
A variety of overcoats appear to have been worn over the years, both double-breasted and single-breasted, and invariably with five buttons and high fold-over collars; these did not carry any insignia. In later decades (possibly 1930s onwards), a long, double-breasted design was used with two rows of four buttons, lapels and epaulettes; the latter had a button fastening and bore an employee number (in individual metal numerals) at the arm end and a Leeds coat of arms badge in the middle. In all likelihood, the insignia at this time were in chrome.
In the first years of corporation operation, inspectors appear to have worn elaborate single-breasted jackets with hidden buttons and upright collars; it is unclear if the latter bore any insignia. Tall pill-box style caps were worn that had an unusual pommel on the top; once again, it is unclear whether they carried a badge of any description. In later years, inspectors wore single-breasted jackets with a row of five black buttons, two waist pockets, two breast pockets (with button closures) and lapels; the latter carried 'Inspector' on each side in embroidered script lettering. Caps were military in style with a tensioned crown and carried a blue, red and white enamel cap badge in the form of a shield, which bore the letters 'L.C.T' and 'INSPECTOR' in a ribbon. Two varieties are known, almost certainly representing two distinct periods; from the general look and feel of these badges, it seems likely that the darker one is the earlier, though this is just speculation. Inspectors were issued with gabardine overcoats, certainly after the World War II, but possibly earlier.
In common with most tramway systems, Leeds employed women during the Great War to replace male staff lost to the armed services. Photos indicate that different styles of uniform were worn, whether this reflected summer/winter wear or a change in style is currently unclear. Both types were tailored single-breasted jackets in blue serge with red piping and epaulletes; whereas one had breast pockets (with button fastenings) and high, fold-over collars, the other had hip pockets (with button fastening), a waist belt (with two buttons) and lapels. A long matching skirt was also worn. Given the Leeds weather, heavy single-breasted overcoats were frequently worn, which like the jackets, had high fold-over collars and epaulettes. Headgear comprised baggy peaked caps (at least in winter), which carried the standard Leeds City Tramways cap badge. Conductresses were apparently awarded a 'Great World War' service badge after the war.
Ladies were also employed during the Second World War, and seemingly continuously thereafter, right up until closure of the system. During this later period, female staff wore single-breasted tailored jackets with lapels and knee-length skirts; headgear comprised baggy caps carrying the standard Leeds City Tramways shield badge.
For further details of Leeds City Tramways uniforms, see Leeds Transport Vol 2 1902 - 193, pages 669-670; J Soper, Leeds Transport Historical Society (1996).
Horse tram drivers and conductors
Conductor and driver pose with an unidentifed horsecar - photo undated, but definitely taken after the corporation takeover of 1894 as the waist panel carries the corporation crest. Both men are wearing uniform overcoats and kepi-style caps, the latter seemingly without insignia. The conductor is wearing a large licence, hanging from his lapel, probably of the type shown below. Photo courtesy of the Tramways and Light Railway Society, with thanks to David Voice.
Probable early municipal-era conductor's licence - brass. This appears to have been introduced in the late 1890s and only lasted a few years. Author's collection.
Steam tram drivers and conductors
Steam Tram No 28 (a Thomas Green product of 1890) pictured at Wortley - photo undated, but probably taken shortly after the municipal take-over, as the trailer still has the company device on the waist panel.
A blow-up of the above photo showing the driver and conductor, the latter in jacket with plain buttons and with a kepi-style cap, seemingly without a badge.
Driver or fireman, and conductor, pose with Steam Tram No 12 (a Thomas Green product of 1886) and Trailer No 26 (a Milnes product of 1890) - photo undated, but definitely taken after the municipal take-over of 1894 as the trailer has the city arms on its waist panel. The driver is wearing typical railway footplate-like attire, whilst the conductor appears to have a self-purchased overcoat and a kepi-style cap, the latter seemingly without a badge. Photo courtesy of the Tramways and Light Railway Society, with thanks to David Voice.
Conductor and driver with Thomas Green-built Steam Tram No 30 (delivered in 1897) at the Meanwood terminus - photo undated, but probably taken in the late 1890s. The conductor is wearing a double-breasted uniform jacket and kepi-style cap, but once again without an obvious badge. Photo courtesy of the Tramways and Light Railway Society, with thanks to David Voice.
Steam Tram No 30 (a Thomas Green product of 1896) and Trailer No 50 pictured at was is believed to be Castleton Bridge in 1890.
A blow-up of the above photo showing the crew. The conductor is wearing a large, round licence, almost certainly the same pattern as shown above.
Motormen and conductors
Conductor and motorman with Tramcar No 147 with a service to Harehills via Beckett St - photo undated, but almost certainly taken around the time the electric service was introduced, 2nd June 1900. Both men are wearing kepi style caps, seemingly without insignia, whilst the conductor has what is probably a municipal licence on his left breast. Photo courtesy of the Tramways and Light Railway Society, with thanks to David Voice.
1899-built Tramcar No 175 on a service to Beeston - photo undated, but given the pristine condition of the vehicle, probably not all that long after the new route to Beeston was opened in 1901. Although the uniform is unchanged from earlier photos, the motorman is clearly wearing a cap badge, almost certainly that shown below. Photo courtesy of the Tramways and Light Railway Society, with thanks to David Voice.
Leeds City Tramways cap badge - gilt. These were introduced in 1902, and lasted through to 1927.
Somewhat of a rarity for a tramway photo, one that is seemingly datable to the minute! This shows the conductor and motorman (as well as two other tramway employees) with the first ever tramcar to Horsfield, at Calverley Lane End. It was apparently taken at 8.15 am on 16th May 1906. All members of staff are wearing kepi-style caps. Photo courtesy of the Tramways and Light Railway Society, with thanks to David Voice.
1904-built Brush Tramcar No 37 with crew on a service to New Inn, Wortley - photo undated, but probably taken prior to the Great War. Note the new military-style caps, which were introduced in 1907. Both men are wearing long overcoats, one single-breasted and the other double-breasted. Author's collection.
Studio portrait of an LCT tramwayman - photo undated, but probably taken shortly before the Great War. Author's collection.
Leeds crew with Tramcar No 44 on a service to the Corn Exchange - photo undated, but probably taken just before the Great War. Note the new jackets with high fold-over collars, introduced around the time of the Great War. Author's collection.
Motorman and conductor pose with Tramcar No 64 - photo undated, but probably taken just before the Great War. Author's collection.
Conductor turning the pole of Tramcar No 61 on a service to Lower Wortley - photo undated, but probably taken just after the Great War. Photo courtesy of the Tramways and Light Railway Society, with thanks to David Voice.
The crew of Tramcar No 259 on a service to Morley - photo undated, but probably taken in the early 1920s. Note the change in the conductor's uniform jacket, which has now reverted to lapels. Photo courtesy of the Tramways and Light Railway Society, with thanks to David Voice.
The crew of Tramcar No 400 on Route 3 pose for the camera of H Nicol - photo very probably taken in the mid 1930s, but certainly after 1932 when Mr Vane Morland became General Manager (see tramcar rocker panel). Note the new shield cap badge, which has a representation of a Tramcar No 400 on it. Photo courtesy of the National Tramway Museum.
Later-period cap badge - nickel. The tram is No 400.
Motorman, inspector and conductor pose for camerman R B Parr with Tramcar No 602 at Middleton on 11th July 1953. Note the conductor's post-war 'US Air Force'-style cap. With thanks to the National Tramway Museum.
Motorman poses for the camera of M J O'Connor, who fortunately for posterity, often took interior views of the tramcars with their crews. This one was taken in the interior of Tramcar No 277 at Dewsbury Rd on 6th May 1956. The overcoat epaulettes have an employee number, as well as what appears to be a Leeds coat of arms badge. With thanks to the National Tramway Museum.
Coat of arms epaulette badge -chrome. With thanks to Billy Haw.
Leeds City Tramways motorman - 1956. Photo by M J O'Connor, courtesy of the National Tramway Museum.
Leeds City Tramways motormen (the individual on the right-hand side is Employee No M378) captured in the depot on the last day of services - 7th November 1959. Photo courtesy of the Stephen Howarth Collection.
Cap badge - brass. To date no photos have surfaced which show this badge being worn, even though it is without doubt a 'Leeds' badge. Given that the unusual shield shape closely resembles the nickel and enamel shield cap badge introduced in 1927, it could be that this badge is in fact an example made for consideration at the same time, but ultimately not favoured by the department.
Driver cap badge - brass.
Conductor cap badge - brass.
The crew of what is very likely a brand new Tramcar No 6 on the Kirkstall to Roundhay route - photo undated, but probably taken in 1897 when this corporation service was inaugurated. The figure on the right is probably an inspector. Photo courtesy of the Tramways and Light Railway Society, with thanks to David Voice.
Blow-up of the photo of Tramcar 602 above (1953), showing details of the inspector's uniform and cap badge.
Probable early-period inspector's cap badge - blue, white & red enamel and nickel. Author's collection.
Probable late-period inspector's cap badge - blue, white & red enamel, and silver/nickel.
Motorman and inspector pose for photographer M J O'Connor with Tramcar No 209 at the Temple Newsam terminus on 7th May 1958. With thanks to the National Tramway Museum.
Studio portrait of Leeds conductresses - photo undated, but almost certainly taken during the Great War, The lady in the middle row, second from left, is wearing a tunic rather than an overcoat, unlike the remainder of the group, Photo courtesy of the Stephen Howarth Collection.
A lovely studio portrait of an LCT Great War tram conductress. The square of leather on the left-side of her jacket was reinforcement, to stop abrasion from the ticket punch (see next photo). Author's collection.
Studio portrait of a Leeds City Tramways Great War conductress and her husband (presumably). Author's collection.
A blow-up of the above photo showing details of the cap, the standard LCT cap badge, and what is presumably a regimental cap badge (intended to show support for a loved one away with the armed services).
Conductress and inspector (from the shape of the cap badge - see above) on the footstep of Tramcar No 14 - photo undated, but probably taken during or shortly after the Great War. Photo courtesy of the Tramways and Light Railway Society, with thanks to David Voice.
Great War conductress and motorman with Tramcar No 339 in 1916, probably at Roundhay. The lady depicted was apparently Leeds' second conductress. Photo courtesy of Adam Smees, the subject's grandson.
Conductress and motorman pose for photographer M J O'Connor in Tramcar No 101 at Roundhay Park on 22nd May 1956. With thanks to the National Tramway Museum.