City of Carlisle Electric Tramways
The earliest photos of Carlisle tramcar crews show them wearing single-breasted jackets with five buttons - presumably bearing the full title and monogram (see link) - and upright collars; it is unclear if the latter carried any badges. Caps were initially soft-topped with a glossy peak, and bore a large round cap badge comprising an armorial device (not doubt unofficial) surrounded by the full company title set within a garter (see below for an example). The design was very similar to that used by the Blackpool and Fleetwood Tram Road Company (see link), more than probably due to the influence of Mr G Readman, who was a director of both enterprises.
A staff photograph taken in 1904 (not shown) shows that the early uniforms did not last long, being replaced by double-breasted 'lancer-style' tunics with two rows of five buttons - narrowing from top to bottom - and upright collars; the latter bore an employee number on the left-hand side, probably in individual nickel numerals, and system initials on the right-hand side, possibly CET, though this cannot be made out with certainty on surviving photographs. Caps were also changed - probably at the same time - to a smart kepi-style with piping, but retaining the prominent round cap badge.
The kepi-style caps appear not to have lasted long, as photos taken from 1905 onwards increasingly show individuals wearing military-style caps with tensioned crowns (tops), suggesting that the kepis were gradually replaced as they wore out, rather than en masse. The large round cap badges probably lasted through to the 1920s, being superseded by standard, off-the-shelf, script-lettering grade badges - 'Motorman' or 'Conductor - more than likely in nickel. It is however currently unclear exactly when this occurred, as the photographic record between 1908 and 1927 is sparse in the extreme, though a reasonable candidate would be 1926 when the name of the company was officially changed. By the latter years of the tramway, the style of jackets worn by conductors had changed to a fairly standard single-breasted design with five buttons, upright collars and epaulettes; the collars probably bore an employee number on the bearer's left-hand side and 'C E T' initials on the right.
Tramcar crews were also issued with double-breasted overcoats with two rows of five buttons, epaulettes and high-fold-over collars; the epaulettes possibly bore an employee number.
Edwardian photographs show staff wearing round licences - almost certainly brass - which were suspended from a button on the bearer's tunic or from a cash-bag strap in the case of conductors. As the years wore on, the wearing of these licences appears to have been at best sporadic. Several examples of alloy armbands have also survived - specifically marked 'tramcar' - though these are not seen any surviving photographs. One possible explanation is that they were only in use for a short period, as they probably required two people to buckle up, and even then they must have had a tendency to slip down the bearer's arm.
Inspectors wore single-breasted jackets with hidden buttons (or an hook and eye affair) and upright collars, all edged in a finer material than the main body of the jacket; the collars bore 'Inspector' in embroidered script lettering on both sides. In the early years, inspectors wore kepi style caps which bore the same prominent cap badge as used by tramcar crews, but with 'Inspector' on a hat band beneath, probably embroidered. At some point, the kepis were superseded by military-style caps, and probably at this time, the large round cap badge was dispensed with, leaving just the embroidered grade. Inspectors were also issued with long double-breasted overcoats, which at least in the latter years of the system had lapels, the upper part of which bore the grade in embroidered script lettering. The Chief Inspector wore the same uniform as the inspectors, but with the grade - 'Chief Inspector' - over two lines of embroidered script lettering, on caps, jacket and overcoat collars.
In common with the vast majority of UK tramway systems, Carlisle employed women during the Great War - as conductresses - to replace male staff lost to the armed forces. Unfortunately, no photographs of these ladies appear to have survived, so it is currently impossible to say what uniforms they wore.
Motormen and conductors
Conductor and motorman in early single-breasted uniforms and soft-topped caps at the Warwick Rd Terminus in 1901. Photo reproduced with kind permission of the Tullie House Museum and Art Gallery, Carlisle.
City of Carlisle Electric Tramways Company cap badge - nickel. Author's collection.
A rathered battered Tramcar No 14 at the Newtown Terminus - photo undated, though purportedly taken in 1905. The conductor is wearing a smart kepi-style cap, whereas the motorman sports a more modern military style of cap. The little girl on the steps was called Lilly, and went on to become the Mother-in-Law of author and broadcaster, Hunter Davies (thanks to John Perkins for this information). Photo courtesy of the National Tramway Museum.
Blow-up of the above photo showing the conductor in his double-breasted, 'lancer-style' tunic, kepi-style cap and prominent cap badge. A round licence is attached to his cash-bag strap, almost certainly the same pattern as that depicted below.
A City of Carlisle motorman's licence - brass.
Conductor, inspector and motorman pose with Tramcar No 2 at Viaduct Corner in 1908. No 2 was actually a one-man operated vehicle, so it is unclear why both conductor and motorman are present, though the former appears not to be wearing a uniform, so could well be a trainee. Photo courtesy of the Tramways and Light Railway Society, with thanks to David Voice.
The crew of a rather battered-looking Tramcar No 2 (the second car to bear that number) at Newtown terminus - photo undated, but almost certainly taken in the mid-to-late 1920s. By this time, conductors were wearing single-breasted jackets with upright collars. The large, round cap badges have now gone, replaced by standard, 'off-the-shelf' script-lettering grade badges. With thanks to the National Tramway Museum.
Standard 'off-the-shelf', script-lettering cap badges of the type worn by Carlisle staff later on in the system's life . In the case of Carlisle, these were probably nickel to match the buttons. They may have been introduced in 1926 when the name of the company was changed to the 'Carlisle & District Transport Company'.
A gaggle of tramway staff wait in Caldewgate for Carrs Biscuits workers to emerge from the factory - photo taken some time in 1927. With thanks to the National Tramway Museum.
All the crewmen, with the exception of the inspector (second from the left) are wearing standard, off-the-shelf, script-lettering cap badges.
Another blow-up of the above photo, this time showing the motorman, with employee number on his epaulette and municipal licence (the only individual depicted who has one). He also has a small round cap badge of unknown pattern - this is considerably smaller than the round cap badges worn in former times.
A conductor poses for the camera of Dr H Nicol at the Newtown terminus on the 10th May 1931. With thanks to the National Tramway Museum.
Tramcar driver (green) and conductor (red) armbands. As these armbands are not seen in any surviving photographs, it is tempting to speculate that their use was probably transient, possibly because they must have been very awkward to put on (without assistance)! Author's collection.
Inspector, taken from the 1908 'Viaduct Corner' view above.
An inspector in conversation with a prospective passenger in the Market Place, circa 1927. Photo courtesy of the Tramways and Light Railway Society, with thanks to David Voice.
A blow-up of the 1927 shot in Caldewgate (see above) showing the inspector. His grade is embroidered on his overcoat collars, as well as the upright collars of his jacket (underneath).
Close up of the senior figure on the platform of Tramcar No 8 from the 1927 Caldewgate photograph above. He appears to have two lines of embroidered script-lettering on his overcoat collars and cap, strongly suggesting that he was a Chief Inspector. With thanks to the National Tramway Museum.