Coventry Corporation Tramways
Following the takeover of Coventry Electric Tramways, the corporation appears to have lost little time in replacing the uniforms of the erstwhile company. Motormen were issued with double-breasted, 'lancer-style' tunics with two rows of five buttons (narrowing from top to bottom and bearing the full system title and the arms of Coventry - see link) and upright collars. The latter bore an employee number on the bearer's left-hand side, in individual metal numerals, whilst the right-hand side bore 'C C T', in individual metal initials, all almost certainly in nickel. Motormen's tunics also carried a stripe on the right-hand cuff; this was in a lighter coloured material than the main body of the tunic.
Conductors were issued with single-breasted jackets with five buttons, two breast pockets (with button closures), epaulettes (again with button closures) and upright collars; the latter carried the same insiginia as motormen's tunics, whereas the epaulettes - which were not present on motormen's tunics - carried a badge comprising the arms of the city and the full system title: 'Coventry Corporation Tramways'.
Caps were military in style with a tensioned crown (top), glossy peak and chin strap; they bore standard, 'off-the-shelf', script-lettering cap badges, above which a small badge of unknown pattern was carried, though it more than likely depicted the arms of Coventry, possibly that depicted below. Although 'Motorman' badges were definitely used in the 1920s, earlier photographs are less conclusive, so it is possible that 'Driver' badges could also have been used.
At some point in the 1920s or early 1930s, the uniform style was altered to a more modern double-breasted design with two rows of four buttons and lapels; the latter bore the same insignia (employee number and 'C C T' initials) as was applied to the upright collars of the previous tunics. The right-hand stripe continued to be used on motormen's jackets, along with individual stars; these are only present on occasional photos, so may have been specific to individuals, for example, denoting length of service or good conduct.
Although the style of the cap remained unchanged, later photographs indicate that the script-lettering grade badges were occasionally supplemented by badges (worn above) which appear to have been identical to those previously worn by conductors on their epaulettes, being notably larger than the normal municipal cap badge. The script-lettering cap badges appear to have been dispensed some time in the early to mid 1930s, leaving only the small municipal arms badge or former epaulette badge as the sole cap adornment.
Tramcar crews were also issued with double breasted overcoats with high fold-over collars, which seem not to have carried any insignia. In later years (1930s onwards), conductors were also issued with lightweight top coats (presumably in summer only). These were double-breasted, with two rows of four buttons, three pockets (with button closures), lapels and high fold-over collars; the latter were of a darker material than the rest of the coat, which was very probably light brown or beige. They do not appear to have carried any badges.
Inspectors initially wore elaborate single-breasted jackets edged in a fine silk-like material, and embellished with ostentatious trappings, including braided epaulettes. Military-style caps were worn, which appear to have carried 'Inspector' in embroidered script lettering. In later years, inspectors appear to have been issued with the standard double-breasted jackets worn by tramcar crews, as well as the lightweight, light-coloured top coats.
In common with many tramway operators, Coventry recruited female staff during the Great War to replace male staff lost to the armed forces. Although they were certainly employed as conductresses, it is currently unclear whether they ever took on driving or inspector duties. Conductresses initially wore informal attire with the same style of cap worn by the men, however, they were subsequently issued with uniforms comprising a tailored jacket with seven buttons, waist belt, two breast pockets (with button closures) and high fold-over collars; the latter do not appear to have carried insignia of any kind. A long, matching skirt was also worn. Headgear seems to have been the standard male cap, though it remains a possibility that specific female headwear may have been issued, as the photographic evidence comprises only one or two early photos.
Female staff were also employed in during the Second World War. It is unclear what uniforms were issued, as photographs show them wearing the standard light-coloured topcoat that was issued to male conductors. Bonnets were worn - these bore the standard 'Coventry Corporation Tramways' cap badge.
For an historical account of the tramways of Coventry, see 'Coventry Transport 1884-1940' by A S Denton and F P Groves (Birmingham Transport Historical Group; 1985).
Motormen and conductors
Studio portrait of a Coventry Corporation Tramways conductor - photo undated, but probably taken prior to the Great War. Author's collection.
Blow-up of the above photo showing the collar and epaulette insignia.
Epaulette badge - nickel. In later years, these appear to have been worn as cap badges. With thanks to the National Tramway Museum.
Staff photo taken in Priestleys Bridge Depot yard - photo undated, but probably taken around the time the corporation took over, i.e. 1912. Photo courtesy of the Tramways and Light Railway Society, with thanks to David Voice.
A blow-up of the above photo. Most individuals are wearing script-lettering grade badges plus a small badge of unknown pattern, which in all likelihood incorporated the municipal arms.
Standard 'off-the-shelf' script-lettering cap badges of the type worn by Coventry staff - nickel.
Conductor and motorman pose with Tramcar No 23 - photo undated, but certainly taken between 1912 and the Great War. The motorman's collar initials can be clearly seen, as can the stripe on his right sleeve. Photo reproduced with the kind permission of Mr T Wilson of Travel Lens Photographic.
Probable CCT cap badge, worn from 1912 onwards - nickel.
Conductor and motorman pose with Tramcar No 30 on Route No 8 - photo undated, but probably taken in the 1920s or even 1930s. Both men appear to wearing script-lettering cap badges only, though the shading effect of the crown makes this difficult to say for certain Photo reproduced with the kind permission of Mr T Wilson of Travel Lens Photographic.
A motorman poses with Tramcar No 44 with a service to Bell Green on Route No 5 - photo undated, but probably taken in the late 1920s or early 1930s. The precise meaning of the three stars on his right-hand sleeve is unclear, but may possibly have indicated length of service. The script-lettering cap badge is definitely 'Motorman'. The photograph was probably taken by the late Alf Owen, and is reproduced with the kind permission of Mr T Wilson of Travel Lens Photographic.
Conductor and motorman pose with Tramcar No 23 outside Foleshill Depot - photograph undated, but probably taken in the early 1930s. The photograph was more than likely the work of the late Alf Owen, and is reproduced with the kind permission of Mr T Wilson of Travel Lens Photographic.
Two crews pose with an unidentified tramcar - photo undated, but almost certainly taken in the late 1930s. NTwo of those depicted are wearing lightweight top coats (probably light brown or beige) and there appear to be no script-lettering cap badges in sight. The photograph was again probably taken by the late Alf Owen, and is reproduced with the kind permission of Mr T Wilson of Travel Lens Photographic.
An inspector (taken from the same photo as the crew of Tramcar 23, above). The elaborate jacket is very similar to those worn by Manchester Corporation Tramways inspectors during the pre-Great War era (see link). This photo may well show the same individual who is pictured with the group of conductresses below. Photo reproduced with the kind permission of Mr T Wilson of Travel Lens Photographic.
A group of newly recruited conductresses line up for the camera with an inspector - photo undated, but without doubt taken during the Great War. Only one lady appears to have an official uniform, the rest are wearing makeshift outfits. Author's collection.
A conductress poses for the camera aboard the platform of Tramcar No 26 - photo undated, but almost certainly taken during the Great War. This lady is clearly the same individual pictured in the group photograph above, but now wearing a uniform. Author's collection.
Motorman, conducress and inspector (probably) pose with Tramcar No 71 - photo undated, but more than likely taken in 1940. All the individuals depicted are wearing the 'tramways' cap badge, the script-lettering cap badges having been dispensed with. The photograph was almost certainly taken by the late Alf Owen, and is reproduced with the kind permission of Mr T Wilson of Travel Lens Photographic.
A conductress swings the trolley pole of Tramcar No 46 in the depot yard, possibly at Priestley's Bridge. The photograph was probably taken by the late Alf Owen, and is reproduced with the kind permission of Mr T Wilson of Travel Lens Photographic.