Dundee City Tramways
Dundee Corporation took over the Dundee and District Tramway Company in 1899, but continued to run horse and steam tram services for almost two years, with the latter finally ceasing on the 14th May 1902. Photographs suggest that crews working these services continued to wear the same unmarked style of uniforms that they had worn in company days (see link).
Staff working the electric services were issued with single-breasted jackets with five buttons, two breast pockets (with button closures) and lapels; photographs suggest that no badges of any kind were worn, which is something of a mystery given that this was era when civic pride was very much to the fore. Caps were more 'railway' than 'tramway' in style, with a soft top rather than the usual tensioned variety, and probably carried script-lettering grade badges - 'Driver' or 'Conductor' - presumably in nickel to match the buttons. However, many photographs exist in which crewmen are not wearing any cap badge at all, and even a series of formal staff photographs from 1905/6 (see below), reveal roughly half of those present to fall into this category. Tramcar staff were also issued with heavy-duty, double-breasted overcoats with two rows of five buttons and high, fold-over collars, all unmarked.
Around the time of the Great War, jacket lapels appear to have given way to upright collars, though in all other respects, including the absence of badges, the jackets were the same as those worn previously. Caps appear to have changed around the same time, to a more upright military style, with most bearing a small round cap badge of unknown pattern, which was worn right through the 1920s, though once again far from ubiquitously. Photographs suggest that a switch was made during the early 1930s to double-breasted cross-over tunics with two rows of buttons (narrowing from top to bottom), upright collars and epaulettes. This appears to have brought on a radical change in the corporation's badge policy, as the upright collars now bore an employee number on the left-hand side and 'D C T' in individual nickel letters on the right-hand side, as well as a small badge of unknown design on the lapels, though this could simply have been an employee number.
By the 1950s, the style of the jacket - though very modern - was switched back to lapels, but with essentially the same overall design, single-breasted with four buttons, two button-closure breast pockets and epaulettes; no badges appear to have been worn. Caps were also changed to an USAF-like design with a soft, baggy top; these bore a municipal coat of arms badge, almost certainly in chrome. The trousers were piped, though exactly what colour is unclear.
In the early years of the electric era, inspectors wore single-breasted jackets with five buttons and lapels, the latter bearing their grade - 'Inspector'- in embroidered script lettering. Caps were soft-topped with a glossy peak and light-coloured hat band, which in common with the tramcar staff, bore no badge. Inspectors uniforms would certainly have changed over the course of the system's history, however, photographic evidence is lacking, so it is currently unclear what uniforms were worn in later years.
In common with many UK tramway systems, female staff were employed during the Great War to replace male staff lost to the armed services, however, only ever as conductresses and then only very late in proceedings (1917), due mainly to the resistance of Peter Fisher (General Manager). Mr Fisher did however ventually give in, as the Council decided early in February 1917 to employ women, giving them the same rates of pay as the men, but also expecting them to work the same (lengthy) shifts. A sub-committee of the Tramways Committee considered the subject of suitable uniform, and inspected samples of uniforms worn by the women in Glasgow and Aberdeen: "that worn by the Glasgow women attracted great admiration. It comprised a dark green and blue tartan skirt, a green coat piped with red, and fashioned with belt, and patch pockets, and a soft green motor cap". Eventually it was decided that the uniform should be of navy serge, the skirt to be comparatively short, lined, and edged with brush braid. The coat was to be similar in design to that worn in Glasgow, with four pockets, belt around the waist and little shoulder straps, and finished with brass buttons. The cuffs and piping were to be of wine red. A warm woollen jersey was to be provided for wearing under this coat for warmth, and a blue motor cap, similar to that worn by the women conductors on the Monifieth route. Over 300 applications were received, and some 56 women were eventually employed, the first starting in March 1917.
Photographic evidence (see below) suggests that this uniform was indeed adopted. Whilst the documentary evidence above indicates that a cap was worn, surviving photographs show a dark-coloured straw bonnet with hat band, though these may in fact have been 'summer' issue only. The hat band was usually worn without a badge of any kind, as were the uniform jackets, though by the end of the great war, photos indicate that a small round cap badge was often worn, presumably the same pattern that the men were wearing at this time.
Female staff were also employed during World War II. Details of the uniforms worn are sketchy though what is clear is that they wore the same baggy cap as their male colleagues, along with the standard municipal cap badge.
My thanks go to Alan Brotchie for providing the excellent quality photographs and the background information.
Horse tram drivers and conductors
Horsecar No 24 at the terminus at West Park Road - photo undated, but probably taken in corporation days.
A blow-up of the above photo, showing the conductor and driver, both of whom appear to be wearing very similar uniforms to their company predecessors, without badges of any kind.
Steam tram drivers and conductors
Driver and conductor pose with Steam Tram No 4 - 'Airlie' in Meadowside - photo undated, but definitely taken in the corporation era. The conductor may possibly be wearing a cap badge, though this is far from certain.
Motormen and conductors
The crew of Number 38 pose for the cameraman with a service on the Maryfield route - photo undated, but probably taken in 1901. Both men appear to be wearing script-lettering grade badges.
Motorman at the controls of Tramcar No 25 in Nethergate, at the top of Union St - photo undated, but probably taken in 1905/6.
One of a series of staff photos taken at Maryfield Depot, this one outside the Parcels Office, probably in 1905 or 1906.
Blow-up of the above photo showing details of the uniforms, which apart from the standard, 'off the shelf' script-lettering cap badges, 'Driver' and 'Conductor', are totally devoid of insignia. Even these are not worn by half of those present.
Script-lettering cap badges of the pattern worn by Dundee City Tramways staff from the start of electric services through to the time of the Great War - nickel.
A group of six motormen and conductors pose for the camera in one of the car shed entrance doorways at Maryfield Depot, again probably in 1905 or 1906. Image cropped from a larger photograph.
Motorman and conductor with Tramcar No 84 at Downfield on either 4th or 5th May 1920 (from the cinema ads). The motorman sports goggles (probably not standard issue), whilst the conductor has a small round cap badge of unknown pattern.
Conductor and motorman with Tramcar No 25 at Ninewells - photo undated, but probably taken in the mid 1920s. Whilst the conductor is without a cap badge, the motorman is wearing the same, small round cap badge seen in other photos from this era.
The crew of an unidentified tram on the Maryfield route - photo undated, but probably taken in the mid 1920s. Both men are wearing single-breasted tunics with the small round cap badge worn in this era.
Conductor and motorman pose in front of Tramcar No 44 at Blackness in the 1930s. Once again, both men are wearing the small round cap badge. The conductor is wearing a cross-over style tunic with upright collars, bearing individual 'D C T' system initials on the right-hand side.
Conductor and motorman on the footstep of Tramcar No 31 in Balgay Rd on 4th September 1954. Photo by M J O'Connor, courtesy of the National Tramway Museum.
Motorman and conductor of Tramcar No 8 pose for the camera of M J O'Connor, who, thankfully for posterity, had a particular passion for interior shots like this - photo taken on 6th September 1954 in Downfield. The shot shows the baggy nature of the cap in these years, as well as the Dundee municipal arms cap badge. Photo courtesy of the National Tramway Museum.
Dundee City Tramways cap badge - chrome. This would was possibly issued from the 1930s onwards, but was certainly in use by the 1950s. Author's collection.
A DCT conductor poses for the camera in the interior of Tramcar No 16 on 18th August 1955. He is wearing a Scottish Sub-Area PSV badge on his left breast, indicating that he also worked on the buses. Photo by M J O'Connor, courtesy of the National Tramway Museum.
PSV 'Conductor' badge as used by Dundee; issued by the Scottish Sub-area based in Aberdeen. Author's Collection.
Dindee City Tramways ticket machine or cash bag buckle - nickel; it is unclear what the number signifies.
A wonderfully evocative studio portrait of five Dundee City Tramways inspectors circa 1902.
A blow-up of the above photo showing James Fisher, brother of the General Manager Peter Fisher. The embroidered collar badges and plain buttons are clear to see, as is the complete absence of a cap badge,.
A couple of DCT inspectors, from a larger staff photo circa 1906.
Dundee City Tramways conductress - photo undated but certainly taken during the Great War. It is unclear if the tall straw bonnet with cockade is official headgear, but probably not given its unusual nature.
Conductress and motorman at Ninewells with an unidentified tram in 1918.
Dundee City Tramways motorman and conductress pose for the camera at the Monifieth terminus. The photo can be precisely dated by the poster on the dash, which is for the 'Blindness of Divorce' at the La Scala, which on-line records reveal was showing on the 4th/5th/6th August 1919 (thanks to Alan Brotchie for this information). Both subjects are wearing the same unidentified small round badges seen in other photos from the Great War. Author's Collection.