Great Yarmouth Corporation Tramways
There is some evidence to suggest that motormen and conductors, of whom there were initially 24 of each, initially wore double-breasted, naval-style jackets of indigo blue, along with soft-topped caps, though confirmatory photographic evidence is currently lacking. These early uniforms cost £1-18s-6d each.
In 1905, the above uniforms were replaced by single-breasted jackets with lapels and four buttons (bearing the full system title and municipal shield - see link); the lapels, along with the jacket edges and cuffs, were all piped in silver braid (as were the trousers). Other than the buttons, the jackets appear to have been plain, i.e. devoid of badges. Caps were naval in style with a soft top and glossy peak, and bore a large cap badge which comprised the Great Yarmouth municipal 'scalloped' shield, within a garter bearing the full system title: 'Great Yarmouth Corporation Tramways'. Examples of badges and buttons exist in both gilded brass and in nickel, suggesting that a transition was made from one to the other, most probably from the former to the latter.
At some point, probably in the late Edwardian era, the uniforms were changed once again to a double-breasted 'lancer-style' of tunic with two rows of five buttons (narrowing from top to bottom), and upright collars. The latter carried an employee number on the bearer's left-hand side (in individual metal numerals) and systems initials - 'G Y C T' - on the right-hand side (in individual metal letters). Although initially without epaulettes, these were later added, and were used for the employee number, with the collars then carrying a small municipal shield badge (on each side). The precise chronology of this change is unclear, with a staff photo taken in the mid 1920s clearly showing a mix of both types. Caps were probably changed at the same time as the tunics, to a military style with a tensioned crown (top); these continued to carry the same cap badge as previously, and were embellished with braided cord (at least initially).
Tramway staff were also issued with double-breasted greatcoats with two rows of five buttons and high-fold-over collars; the latter bore system initials on both sides - 'G Y C T' - in individual metal letters. In later years, the greatcoats bore epaulettes, and these, along with the collars, were worn without insignia, even the buttons being plain.
Motormen and conductors were required to wear a round enamel licence when in service. This was usually hung from a button on the bearer's left breast, and bore a number, the full system title and the grade, all in black lettering on a white background. 'Driver' is known, and 'Conductor' presumably existed as well.
Inspectors, initially numbering three individuals, were issued with single-breasted jackets with hidden buttons (or an hook and eye affair), and a slit breast pocket, all edged in a finer material than the main body, and with upright collars; the latter probably bore the grade - 'Inspector' - in embroidered script-lettering. Caps were in a kepi style with a stiff glossy peak, and bore a large, oval-shaped cap badge of unknown pattern. The first uniforms cost £2-0s-6d. The kepi-style cap was subsequently replaced by a military-style cap with tensioned crown, which continued to carry the same badge as the earlier kepis. The uniform jacket was eventually changed to a more modern design, certainly by the 1920s, and whilst still single-breasted with hidden buttons, now bore epaulettes and two breast pockets (with button closures).
Great Yarmouth also employed the services of a Chief Inspector, though details - other than the cap, which bore a braided peak - remain unknown.
In common with the vast majority of UK tramway systems, Great Yarmouth took on female staff during the Great War (starting in 1916) to replace male staff lost to the armed services. Unfortunately, photographs are yet to come to light, so all that is known comes from paper records, which indicate that 10 long-skirted uniforms were initially purchased at a cost of at 35 shillings each. However, given as only 5 straw hats (with bands) were purchased in the summer of 1917, at a cost of 4 shillings each, it would appear that only that number of ladies had actually been appointed, though 10 winter overcoats were purchased at the same time, presumably in anticipation of further recruitment. Five more sets of uniforms (including gaiters) were purchased in 1918. In June 1919, instructions were issued for the sale of female uniforms, suggesting that all the ladies had departed by this time.
I am indebted to David Mackley (and the late Terry Barker) for much of the information above, and to Colin Tooke (as well as David) for permission to reproduce many of the photos shown below.
For a photographic history of the Yarmouth's tramways, see 'Great Yarmouth Tramways' by David Mackley; Middleton Press (2003).
Motormen and conductors
A brand new No 24 poses for the cameraman on the Gorleston-Southtown route with a service bound for Yarmouth Bridge. The motorman is wearing a single-breasted jacket with lapels, and a soft-topped cap which bears a large round municipal cap badge (see below). His left breast bears a black and white enamel licence.
Great Yarmouth Corporation cap badge - brass. Author's collection.
Great Yarmouth Corporation cap badge - nickel..
Great Yarmouth Corporation Tramways driver's licence - black and white enamel. With thanks to the National Tramway Museum.
The conductor of Tramcar No 26 stares back at the camera as his vehicle traverses Pier Plain in 1905/6. The conductor is wearing a soft-topped cap with summer rain cover. Photo courtesy of the Tramways and Light Railway Society, with thanks to David Voice.
A composite photo taken in 1905 showing the tramway's staff, Caister depot on the left and Gorleston depot on the right. Photo courtesy of the David Mackley collection.
A blow-up of the above photo showing some of the conductors and motormen, all in single-breasted jackets edged in silver piping, and with soft-topped caps.
Studio portrait of an unknown Great Yarmouth Corporation Tramways conductor - photo undated, but probably late Edwardian. By this time, the soft-topped caps had clearly been superseded by caps with a tensioned crown (top), which were embellished, somewhat unusually, with braided cord. His employee number (on his left collar) and his licence number are identical (No 93), which was usually not the case with most other tramway systems, as the licencing authority (or department) and the tramway were invariably separate entities. Photo courtesy of the David Mackley collection.
Conductor and motorman with Tramcar No 32 - photo undated, but probably taken either shortly before or shortly after the Great War. The employee numbers had by this time migrated to the epaulettes, with both the collars now bearing a small municipal shield badge (see below). Photo courtesy of the Colin Tooke collection.
Great Yarmouth Corporation collar badge - brass. This badge began to be used on the upright collars of the uniform tunics from around the time of the Great War, and in later years, was sometimes substituted for the larger cap badge. Author's collection.
A group of tramcar crews assembled in the roadway outside the Feathers Plain depot (Gorleston) - photo undated, but certainly taken between 1922 and 1930 as the figure in the centre - Mr P G Campling - was the General Manager during this period. Photo courtesy of the Colin Tooke collection.
A blow-up of the above photo showing some of the motormen and conductors. Some have the older 'G Y C T' initials and employee numbers, whilst others have the small municipal shield badge, and others still are plain.
Another photo of Gorleston staff, this time assembled in front of the library window, which was adjacent to the depot. It was probably taken at the same time as the preceding photograph, given that it appears to be the identical group of men. Photo courtesy of the David Mackley collection.
The crew of an immaculately turned-out Tramcar No 2 pose for the camera late in the system's life, probably in the late 1920s or even the early 1930s. The conductor has no insignia on either his collars or his epaulettes, and his cap badge is the small municipal shield badge previously worn on the tunic collars. Photo courtesy of the Colin Tooke collection.
Tramcar No 25 stands in Bridge Rd at the Southtown terminus in 1929. Photo by Dr H Nicol, courtesy of the National Tramway Museum.
A blow-up of the above photo showing the motorman. Other than his prominent cap badge, his entire greatcoat appears to be devoid of insignia, inclusive of the buttons, which are plain.
Tramcar No 33 stands at the Caister terminus with a service for the Market Place - photo undated, but probably taken in the late 1920s or early 1930s. Photo by Dr H Nicol, courtesy of the National Tramway Museum.
A blow-up of the above photo showing the motorman in his greatcoat, which again appears to be devoid of insignia.
A heavily bedecked 'Special Car', used during the opening of the new Caister line on 16th May 1907. Both uniformed figures, including the driver, are inspectors, Photo courtesy of the Colin Tooke collection.
A blow-up of the above photograph showing the two inspectors. They are wearing typical 'tramway inspector' uniforms with kepi-style caps, the latter adorned by a markedly larger badge than the pattern issued to motormen and conductors.
A blow-up of the 1920s Gorleston staff photo shown above, which includes the General Manager (centre back), and either side of him, two inspectors. Their cap badges are once again noticeably larger than those worn by tramcar staff, and are oval (tall) rather than circular.