Chester Corporation Tramways
Although images that unequivocally show the horse tramway in its corporation-owned days (1st January 1902 to the 1st January 1903) are unknown, given the fact that uniforms were not worn during 'company' days (see link), it seems reasonable to assume that the corporation saw fit to do likewise.
Photographs taken in the first few months of the electric tramway's opening clearly show staff wearing plain jackets without markings of any kind, including the buttons; although these jackets may well have been self-purchased, the consistent style evident in surviving images suggests that they were issued by the corporation. Headgear took the form of a kepi-style cap with a stiff glossy peak; these appear to have had a prominent ridge half way up (around the circumference), below which a standard script-lettering grade badge was worn - either 'Conductor' or 'Driver' - and above which a small shield-shaped badge was mounted. In all likelihood, the latter is the same type of municipal shield badge shown below.
The plain jackets were quickly superseded, probably within the first year, by formal issues. These took the form of single-breasted jackets with five nickel buttons (bearing the municipal device - see link), two breast pockets (with button closures) and upright collars; the latter bore an employee number - in individual numerals - on the bearer's left-hand side, and system initials - 'C C T' - on the right-hand side. The badges were almost certainly nickel to match the buttons. Between 1905 and 1907, the kepi-style caps were superseded by more modern military-style caps with an unusally wide, tensioned crown (top); the cap badges remained the same. The style of uniform and cap were from then on unchanged right through to the closure of the tramway.
Tramcar crews were also issued with long, double-breasted greatcoats with two rows of five buttons and upright collars; the latter bore an employee number on the bearer's left-hand side and system initials - 'C C T' - on the right-hand side.
Inspectors initinally wore identical attire to tramcar staff, but with a metal, script-lettering grade badge - 'Inspector' - on their kepi-style caps, along with the municipal shield badge; the cap badges were almost certainly nickel. Inspectors were presumably issued with uniform jackets at the same time as tramcar staff, but with 'Inspector' in embroidered script lettering on both collars. Caps initially remained the same (kepis), but were soon superseded by rather elaborate, wide-crowned military-style caps, which bore a hat band upon which the grade - 'Tramways Inspector' - was carried in embroidered script lettering; both the hat band and the crown were embellished with light-coloured piping. The standard municipal shield badge continued to be worn above the hat band. This elaborate style of cap appears however to only have lasted a short time, before being replaced by a plain wide-crowned cap, with the badge reverting to the original nickel script-lettering grade pattern. Inspectors appear to have worn the same style of double-breasted greatcoats as tramcar crews, but with 'Inspector' in embroidered script lettering on the collars, rather than the usual metal insignia.
In common with the vast majority of UK tramways, Chester employed the services of female staff during the Great War, to replace male staff lost to the armed services. These ladies were definitely employed as conductresses, though it is currently unclear whether they ever drove the trams. Uniforms took the form of stylish, double-breasted, 'lancer-style' coats with two rows of six buttons (narrowing from top to bottom), and high, fold-over collars; the latter bore the usual insignia on each side. The single surviving photograph shows a conductress in puttee-like leggings, suggesting that trousers may have been worn. Headgear took the form of a wide-brimmed bonnet, which bore a standard script-lettering grade badge - 'Conductor'. Although the photo below shows a round badge of unknown pattern mounted above the grade badge, this is almost certainly a regimental sweetheart badge, the wearing of which was common practice amongst tramway employees the length and breadth of the country during the Great War.
My thanks go to Alan Brotchie for providing several of the photographs shown below, from the collection of the late Harry Dibdin.
For a photographic history of the tramway, see 'Chester Tramways' by Barry M Marsden; Middleton Press (2007).
Motormen and conductors
In all probability, a brand new Tramcar No 12 - still with curtains - pictured at the western terminus at Saltney - photo undated, but very probably taken in 1903. Pictured left to right are an inspector, conductor and motorman.
A blow-up of the above photo showing the conductor and motorman, both of whom are wearing single-breasted jackets completely devoid of insignia, including the buttons. The conductor's belt has fixings for both his cash bag and the ticket clipper/punch, something which may possibly have been unique to Chester; the buckle is very reminiscent of military practice, so probably had some sort of insignia or device in the centre.
A close-up of the motorman's kepi-style cap, showing the script-lettering grade badge - 'Driver' - and small shield-shaped badge above, almost certainly that depicted below.
Standard, 'off-the-shelf', script-lettering grade badges of the type used by Chester Corporation Tramways - nickel.
Chester municipal shield badge, almost certainly the same pattern as that used by the Tramways Department - nickel. Author's Collection.
Motorman, conductor and inspector with Tramcar No 11 on the approach to Grosvenor Bridge - photo undated, but probably taken in 1904 given the absence of destination boxes. All three individuals are wearing single-breasted jackets with upright collars. Photo courtesy of Cheshire Image Bank (see link).
Tramcar No 2 with motorman (No 16), conductor and inspector, probably photographed between 1905 and 1907 along Hough Green. The kepi-style caps had by this time been replaced with military-style caps with a tensioned crown (top).
A blow-up of the above photo showing the conductor. His collar insignia are clearly discernable - 'C C T' and '14' - and he also appears to be wearing a similar belt and buckle to the conductor in the first photograph above.
Motorman and inspector with Tramcar No 7 at the station terminus - photo undated, but probably late Edwardian given the destination box; these were first fitted around 1907/8.
A blow-up of the above photo showing the motorman - Employee No 16 - the same individual as seen in the photo of Tramcar No 2 above. The insignia on the overcoat collars are easily made out.
Motorman and conductor (possibly Employee No 14) pose with Tramcar No 1 at the Christleton terminus in 1907. Photo courtesy of Cheshire Image Bank (see link).
A blow-up of the 1903 Saltney terminus photo above, showing the inspector, in kepi-style cap with metal, script-lettering grade badge.
'Off-the-shelf', script-lettering grade badge of the type used by Chester Corporation Tramways - nickel.
A blow-up of the photograph of Tramcar No 2 above, showing the inspector. By this time (circa 1905-7), the kepi-style caps had been superseded by military-style caps with an unusually wide, tensioned crown (top); they were elaborately piped, and bore a hat band with 'Tramways Inspector' in embroidered script lettering. The jackets were the same style as worn by tramcar crews, but with 'Inspector' in embroidered script lettering on the upright collars.
A blow-up of the photograph of Tramcar No 7 above, showing the inspector. The collars on both the overcoat and the jacket (worn underneath) bear the grade - 'Inspector' - in embroidered script lettering. The cap however appears to be a good deal less flamboyant than that shown in the previous photo, foregoing the elaborate piping and embroidery, in favour of a simple, metal, script-lettering grade badge.
Conductress No 42, Hilda Conway - photo taken during the Great War. Photo courtesy of Cheshire Image Bank (see link).
A blow-up of the above photo showing the uniform insignia. The collars badges - 'C C T' and '42' - are easily discerned; the upper badge is almost certainly a regimental badge, a common practice during the Great War.