Salford Corporation Tramways

Summary
Salford Corporation took over operation of the horse-drawn lines it had previously leased to the Manchester Carriage and Tramways Company Limited in 1901, and photos taken in this period clearly show that drivers and conductors wearing informal attire such as heavy jackets, flat caps and bowler hats, effectively continuing the policy of their former employers.

Following electrification, tramcar crews were issued with single-breasted jackets with five buttons (these were brass and carried the full system title and corporation coat of arms - see link) and upright collars; the bearer's left-hand collar carried an employee number (in individual brass numerals), whilst the right-hand collar bore ’S C T’ system initials (in individual brass letters). Motormen were apparently allocated odd numbers, and conductors even numbers (my thanks to Ted Gray for this information). The collars were embellished with material of a lighter colour than the main body of the jacket - no doubt intended to give a smarter appearance - and this was almost certainly used on the sleeves and trousers, the former having chevrons around the cuffs and the latter being piped.

Caps were originally in a kepi style, but these were quickly replaced by soft-topped, railway-style caps, which themselves seem to have been fairly quickly superseded by military-style caps with tensioned crowns (tops); the latter having a woven straw upper. The caps bore script-lettering grade badges - either ‘Motorman’ or ‘Conductor’ - along with a small municipal ‘coat of arms’ badge; the grade badges appear to have been dispensed with around 1905, after which time the caps simply bore the municipal arms badge.

From the late Edwardian era onwards, motormen increasingly wore double-breasted, 'lancer-style' tunics with two rows of five buttons (narrowing from top to bottom) and with upright collars; the latter carried the same insignia as the earlier jackets. The style of uniforms was subtly altered around 1915 or 1916 by the addition of epaulettes; these had a button fastening at the neck end and bore a prominent oval-shaped brass badge with 'Salford City Tramways' around the circumference, and an employee number in the centre in nickel numerals. This badge effectively replaced the collar insignia, which were therefore dispensed with. Around the same time, the small ‘coat of arms’ cap badge was superseded by a larger more elaborate pattern of municipal cap badge incorporating the full arms within a laurel wreath. The latter were issued in brass initially, though a switch was possibly made to chrome in later years, given that marked 'Salford City Tramway's chrome buttons are known to have survived.

In the interwar years, various changes were made to the style of the jackets in-line with the prevailing fashions, firstly by the addition of breast pockets, and finally to a more modern cut with lapels and epaulettes.

Tramcar staff were also issued with long, double-breasted greatcoats with two rows of five buttons and high, fold-over collars; like the tunics worn underneath, the collars bore system initials and an employee number. When the uniform was changed in the Great War, with the addition of epaulettes to the tunics, it seems that the greatcoats were treated likewise, with the collars no longer carrying employee numbers, being replaced by the oval Employee Number badge on the epaulettes.

Salford, along with Manchester, was a great employer of 'Trolley Boys', young lads who assisted the conductor, for example, by directing passengers and, as the name implies, moving the trolley boom. The position was dispensed with in 1930. The uniforms appear to have been identical to those worn by conductors and motormen, but without the oval Employee No badge, simple numerals being worn instead.

In the early years of the system, inspectors appear to have worn a very similar uniform to conductors and motormen, deviating only in the use of ‘Inspector’ script-lettering badges on both the collars and the caps, the former embroidered and the latter metal. It is unclear what jackets were worn by inspectors in later years, as surviving photographs show them in long gabardine overcoats. Chief inspectors wore elaborate single-breasted jackets with hidden buttons (or an hook and eye affair), heavily embellished with 'bandmaster-style' frogs and braiding. By the time of the Great War, caps were in a tall, military style with a peaked cap and tensioned crown; they bore a hat band which carried an elaborate cap badge, the precise details of which are currently unknown.

In common with many UK tramway systems, Salford employed the services of female staff during the Great War - as conductresses - to replace men lost to the armed services; these ladies were issued with long, single-breasted tunics with five buttons, an integral belt with button fastening, two hip-level pockets, epaulettes, and a long matching skirt. Later in the war, the jackets were altered to a somewhat smarter design, which although similar, now had two breast pockets (with button closures), with the collars and epaulettes edged in a finer and different coloured material than the main body of the jacket. Headgear took the form of a water-resistent straw bonnet with a hat band, with the standard 'small pattern' municipal cap badge mounted on a half rosette in the centre; various other headgear appears in the surviving photos, however, which was corporation-issued and which merely informal attire, is difficult to say. The larger more elaborate cap badge superseded the smaller pattern around 1916.

It is likely that Salford also used 'trolley girls' as a photo has survived (see below) which shows a young-looking girl in a noticeably different uniform, single-breasted and devoid of pockets, and identical to those worn at the time by trolley boys.

Conductresses were also issued with long, single-breasted top coats with a waist belt, epaulettes and high-folder collars, all of which were edged in a finer material than the main body of the jacket. The buttons were situated to one side of the garment rather than down the centre.

Salford also employed the services of female inspectors. These ladies wore a very similar uniform to their conducting counterparts, but with the addition of a much broader-brimmed straw bonnet; this carried a hat band, upon which was borne a large cap badge, almost certainly the same as the pattern worn by male inspectors. A concession was also made for the hotter months of the year, in the form of a summer uniform; the main difference being the jacket, which was double-breasted with lapels rather than high fold-over collars; it was probably cut somewhat shorter as well.

For a detailed history of the system, see: 'Salford's Tramways, Parts 1 and 2' by Edward Gray; Foxline Publishing (1997 and 1999).

Images

Horse tram drivers and conductors
Salford City Tramways horse Tram W27 and crew
Conductor J E Thompson and his driver pose with Horsecar W27 of the former Manchester Carriage and Tramway Company in Lower Broughton Road; although the photo is undated, it certainly post-dates the takeover by Salford Corporation (28th April 1901). Neither man is wearing a licence, and the appearance of the staff is generally somewhat less smart than in the heyday of the 'MC&TCo'. With thanks to Ted Gray.


Motormen and conductors
Salford City Tramways electric tram No 74 at Peel Green 1902
Conductor and motorman aboard Tramcar No 74 at the Peel Green terminus in October 1902. Both men are wearing piped, kepi-style caps adorned with script-lettering grade badges - 'Motorman' or 'Conductor' - along with a small municipal arms badge. The right-hand collars of their greatcoats bear indivudual 'S C T' initials. With thanks to Salford Local History Library and Ted Gray.


Salford City Tramways cap badge
General pattern script-lettering cap badges - Motorman and Conductor. Salford presumably issued these in brass to match the button material. Author's Collection.


Salford City Tramways cap badge - early
Salford Corporation Tramways 'municipal arms' cap badge - brass. These badges were worn between 1901 and the middle of the Great War, at which time they were replaced by a larger, more elaborate badge. Author's Collection.


Salford Corporation Tramways Tram 115 and crew circa 1904
Conductor and motorman pose for the cameraman with what looks to be a fairly new Tramcar No 115 on a Peel Green service, which would date the image to 1903 or 1904. By this time the kepi caps had clearly already been superseded by soft-topped caps, though still carrying the same badges. With thanks to Bury Image Bank (see link); Image b03568 - copyright Bury Archive Services.


Salford City Tramways employee No B 15
A studio portrait of an SCT tramwayman, Employee B15 - photo undated, but probably late Edwardian. It is unclear what the 'B' prefix denoted, possibly a depot allocation. Author's Collection.


Salford City Tramways Tram employee No B15
A blow-up of the above photo showing details of the collar insignia and the cap, by this time without a grade badge. The crown is of woven straw, a type favoured by several tramway companies.


Salford City Tramways Tram No 88 and crew
Motorman and conductor with Tramcar No 88 outside the Waggon and Horses public house at the Peel Green terminus - circa 1914. Whilst the conductor still has the same style of single-breasted jacket worn since the inception of electric services, the motorman is wearing a double-breasted 'lancer-style' tunic. With thanks to Roy Pinches.


Salford City Tramways Tram No 95, Great War conductress
Great War conductress and motorman with Tramcar No 96 on a service to Prestwich via Great Clowes St. Author's Collection.


Salford City Tramways Great War tram driver
A blow-up of the above photo showing the motorman, in double-breasted greatcoat, which save for the epaulettes, appears to be devoid of insignia. His cap on the other hand bears a new elaborate municipal cap badge.


Salford City Tramways cap badge
Salford Corporation Tramways cap badge - brass. This pattern of cap badge was probably worn from around 1916 right through to the utlimate demise of the system in 1947. The badge is affixed by a slider rather than lugs, a style of fixing used extensively on military cap badges, but to the best of my knowledge, uniquely so by Salford (amongst tramway concerns). This pattern of badge was apparently used widely by the corporation's various departments, so was not confined to tramwaymen. With thanks to Stephen Howarth.


Salford City Tramways tram drivers and conductors 1923
Two conductors and a motorman, captured for posterity in 1923. By this time, the jacket collars were left plain, with the employee numbers being borne on the epaulettes within an oval badge. With thanks to Salford Local History Library and Ted Gray.


Salford City Tramways cap badge
Salford Corporation cap badge - nickel. It is unclear whether nickel cap badges were ever used by the Tramway Department, but given that buttons have only survived in brass and in chrome, probably not. With thanks to John Johnston.



Salford Corporation cap badge - chrome. New badges were probably issued in this material from the late 1930s or early 1940s onwards.



Epaulette employee number badge, which was introduced around 1916 - brass with nickel numbers. With thanks to the National Tramway Museum.


Salford City Tramways trolley boy William Whittingham
‘William Whittingham’ - an SCT 'trolley boy' - taken in 1930, the year the position was dispensed with. The noticeable lustre of the cap badge suggests that it might be chrome, though this would have been very early for this material (see link). With thanks to Salford Local History Library and Ted Gray.


Senior staff
Salford City Tramway chief inspector
Chief Inspector Dunn with a group of conductresses in 1915. The elaborately braided tunic is typical of this grade on the larger tramway systems. With thanks to Salford Local History Library and Ted Gray.


Female staff

An early photo of an SCT Great War conductress, taken in 1915. Her bonnet bears the standard, 'small pattern' Salford cap badge on a half rosette. With thanks to Salford Local History Library and Ted Gray.


Salford City Tramways Great War conductress
Great War conductress - dated 1915. With thanks to Salford Local History Library and Ted Gray.


Salford City Tramways Great War tram conductress Williams
Conductress Williams - photo undated, but given that she is wearing the new pattern of cap badge and a new style of jacket with breast pockets, probably taken later in the Great War. With thanks to Ted Gray.


Salford City Tramways Great War conductresses and inspectresses
A group of conductresses (seated left and right), two lady inspectors (standing) and a girl (seated centre) who is probably a trolley girl - photo undated, but certainly taken during the Great war. The lnspector on the left is wearing a winter uniform, whilst the lady on the right wears the summer version. The headgear looks to be informal, suggesting that they had possibly run out of standard issue bonnets, perhaps unsurprising given that Salford ended up employing well over 300 conductresses! With thanks to Ted Gray.


Salford City Tramways Great War conductress
A blow-up of the shot of Tramcar No 95 above showing the conductress. She is wearing a long, single-breasted top coat with the buttons situated to one side rather than down the middle. The oval employee number badge, which was probably introduced in 1916, can just be seen on her right epaulette.